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APA格式是什么,apa引用格式,apa写作格式

时间:2015-09-05 11:33来源:www.vk67.ooo 作者:felicia 点击:
很多国外留学生写作essay的时候会涉及参考文献格式的问题,经常会网上搜apa论文格式、apa格式参考文献、apa引用格式、apastyle是什么?等,本文详细介绍APA格式问题。

内容
 

APA是什么

文内引用:基础知识

文内引用:作者/作者

脚注和尾注

参考列表:基本规则

参考列表:作者/作者

参考列表:期刊文章

参考列表:书

参考表:其他印刷品来源

参考表:电子资源

参考表:其他非书面来源

APA格式
 

APA格式是什么?

APA(美国心理协会)是社会科学最常用的引用来源。这个资源,是根据APA手册的第五版(2008年)修订的,为APA研究论文、文内引用、脚注/尾注、参考页面的一般格式提供相关例?#21360;?br />  

APA引用基础知识

(1)APA风格要求作者在使用信号短语来描述早期的研究时,可以采用完成时态或过去时态。如(1998)JONES FOUND或者JONES(1998)HAS FOUND.…
 

(2)括号引用

当使用APA格式的时候,遵循文内引用中作者-日期的方法。这意味着作者的姓氏和今年出版的来源应该出现在文本中。如(琼斯,1998)一个完整的引用应该出现在文章参考列表末尾。
 

Contents:
 

What is APA

In-Text Citations: The Basics

In-Text Citations: Author/Authors

Footnotes and Endnotes

Reference List: Basic Rules

Reference List: Author/Authors

Reference List: Articles in Periodicals

Reference List: Books

Reference List: Other Print Sources

Reference List: Electronic Sources

Reference List: Other Non-Print Sources

APA Format
 

What is APA Format?

APA (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 5th edition of the APA manual (2008), offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.
 

APA Citation Basics
 

(1) APA style requires authors to use the past tense or present perfect tense when using signal phrases to describe earlier research. E.g., Jones (1998) found or Jones (1998) has found…
 

(2) Parentheses Citations

When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text. E.g., (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
 

If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference.
 

(3) In-Text Citation Capitalization, Quotes, and Italics/Underlining

Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D. Jones.
 

If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source: Permanence and Change. Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs: Writing New Media, There Is Nothing Left to Lose. (Note: in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized: Writing new media.)
 

When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word: Natural-Born Cyborgs.
 

Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: "Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock's Vertigo."
 

Italicize or underline the titles of longer works such as books, edited collections, movies, television series, documentaries, or albums: The Closing of the American Mind; The Wizard of Oz; Friends.
 

(4) Short Quotations

If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.
 

According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199). Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers? If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation. She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style," (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.
 

(5) Long Quotations

Place direct quotations longer than 40 words in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented five spaces from the left margin. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation five spaces from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.
 

Jones's (1998) study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)
 

(6) Summary or Paraphrase

If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required.)
 

According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.
 

APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).
 

In-Text Citations: Author/Authors
 

PA style has a series of important rules on using author names as part of the author-date system. There are additional rules for citing indirect sources, electronic sources, and sources without page numbers.
 

(1) Citing an Author or Authors

A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses.
 

Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) showed....

(Wegener & Petty, 1994)
 

A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in in parentheses the first time you cite the source.

(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993)
 

In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the parentheses.

(Kernis et al., 1993) (in et al., et should not be followed by a period.)
 

Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. in the signal phrase or in parentheses.

Harris et al. (2001) argued...

(Harris et al., 2001)
 

Unknown Author: If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles and chapters are in quotation marks.
 

A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers ("Using APA," 2001).
 

Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.
 

According to the American Psychological Association (2000), ...

If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.
 

First citation: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving [MADD], 2000)

Second citation: (MADD, 2000)
 

Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list, separated by a semi-colon.

(Berndt, 2002; Harlow, 1983)
 

Authors With the Same Last Name: To prevent confusion, use first initials with the last names.

(E. Johnson, 2001; L. Johnson, 1998)
 

Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation
 

Research by Berndt (1981a) illustrated that...

Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwards: When citing an Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterward in-text, cite the appropriate author and year as usual.

(Funk & Kolln, 1992)
 

Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicators name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list.



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