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代写澳洲essay:A study of the entrepreneur process...

时间:2019-01-17 15:24来源:Admin5 作者:vicky 点击:
本文是澳洲留学生essaya作业范文,本文试图从将史蒂夫乔布斯的生活与发现理论结合起来,为这一过程提供一些视角。它试图回答发现理论是否足以解释这一过程的重要问题。
导读:本文是澳洲留学生essay作业范文,本文试图从将史蒂夫乔布斯的生活与发现理论结合起来,为这一过程提供一些视角。它试图回答发现理论是否足以解释这一过程的重要问题。史蒂夫乔布斯不是随机选择的。
This article, as a result, is trying to provide some perspective into this process from incorporating the life of Steve Jobs with the discovery theory. It tries to answer the important question whether discovery theory is sufficient to explain the process. 

在过去的十年里,创业被认为是一项越来越重要和有前途的活动。尤其是在这个市场解决社会问题和创造社会价值方面承担更多责任的时代。早期的创业研究集中于这一过程中的革命性经济变化(Schumpeter,1961年)。然而,这一领域的研究很大程度上是现象驱动的(Austin等人,2006年),理论框架尚未开发。此外,现有关于社会创业过程的研究数量有限,这是了解创业活动的一个重要因素。自从1997年回到苹果公司后,苹果公司重新获得?#26031;?#21435;的荣誉,并凭借iPhone、iPad和iMac产品震惊了世界。乔布斯的想法和他的苹果产品甚至改变了行业前景。人们购买这些东西不仅是因为他们的功能,更是因为他们的生活方式。有了如此巨大的成功,乔布斯被证明是理解整个创业过程如何运作的一个很好的例子。本文的第一部分是对主流理论的回顾。详细描述了不同企业家如?#38382;?#21035;客观机遇。然后,?#23548;?#22238;顾部分提供了来自不同信息源的史蒂夫·乔布斯的详细而集中的描述。同?#20445;?#36824;将讨论收集这些数据的方法和过程以及它们的局限性。将解释如何克服这些限制。接下来,史蒂夫·乔布斯的生活和发现理论将被结合起来,以获得对企业家过程的新见解。最后,通过分析得出了一个积极的结论,即机会发现观确实更准确地描述了企业?#19994;?#36807;程。
Within the last decade, entrepreneurship has been considered an increasingly important and promising activity. This is especially true in an era where market takes up more responsibilities in solving social problems and creating social value. Earlier entrepreneurship studies focused on the revolutionary economic change of this process (Schumpeter, 1961). However, studies in this field has largely been phenomenon driven (Austin et al., 2006) that a theoretical framework has not yet been developed. Also, there is limited number of existing researches on social entrepreneurship process, which is an essential element to understand entrepreneurship activities. Since his return to Apple Inc. in 1997, the company has relived its old honor and stunned the world with iPhone, iPad and its iMac products. Job’s idea and his apple products even changed the industry outlook. People are buying these things not only because of their functions, but more as buying a lifestyle. With such huge success, Jobs proves to be a fairly good example to understand how the whole entrepreneurship process works. The first part of this article is a review the mainstream theories. A detailed description is given about how objective opportunities are identified by distinctive entrepreneurs. The practical review part then provides a detailed and focused description of Steve Jobs from different sources of information. At the same time, the methodology and process of collecting these data will be discussed as well as their limitations. Explanations will be given as to how these limitations are overcome. Following this, the life of Steve Jobs and the discovery theory will be incorporated to gain a new insight into the entrepreneur process. Finally, a positive conclusion is reached from the analysis that the discovery view of opportunities indeed more accurately described the entrepreneur process.

企业家过程理论的核心部分是企业?#19968;?#20250;的概念。在这一领域中,有两种不同的信息流,它们是如何感知和处理这些机会的。发现观将这些机会视为企业家发现的客观存在(Shane和Venkataraman,2000年),而创意观认为这些机会?#23548;?#19978;是企业家创造的(Schumpeter,1934年)。
The core part of entrepreneur process theory is the notion of entrepreneur opportunity. Two distinctive streams exist in this field as to how these opportunities are perceived and handled. The discovery view considers these opportunities as objective existence that are found by entrepreneurs (Shane and Venkataraman, 2000) while the creative view believes that they are actually created by entrepreneurs (Schumpeter, 1934).

发现理论也被称为个体/机会关系理论,因为它关注独特企业家所识别的机会的存在、发现和利用。机会的发现观(Shane和Venkataraman,2000)认为,机会的存在是客观的,因为无论人们是否承认这些机会。它们是市场不完善的产物,导致市场参与者做出次优选择。这些机会包括可以通过新的方式创造新的市场,结束关?#25285;‥ckhardt和Shane,2003年)。了解这些机会是企业家过程的重要组成部分,因为它直接决定了从中可以创造多少价值。但机会的唯一存在是不够的,一个能够准确识别和利用这些机会的独特的人,即企业家,对这些机会有意义也是必不可少的。发现理论认为,这是一个主观的过程,需要企业家特别警觉,以便他们能够对外部环境作出?#20174;?#24182;解决外部缺陷(Casson,1982年)。这种警觉是一种态度。企业家不是故意从灵感中寻?#19968;?#20250;。相反,他们不断地自发地扫描市场环境,看是否存在这样的市场缺陷。他们非常热衷于发现这些机会,并且能够迅速评估这些机会的盈利能力。如果他们得到满意的结果,他们将立即通过获取和组织?#35797;?#26469;响应这些机会。对于这些企业家来?#25285;?#26426;会中包含的信息是如何以最佳方式完成后续项目的直接指导。需要意识到的一件重要事情是,企业?#19994;?#34892;动总是承担风险(Shane,2003年)。企业?#20197;?#20182;们发现被忽视的市场缺陷的意义上是优越的。但这种优势并不能保证他们的成功。他们仍然需要面对不断变化的市场环境和各种风险敞口。
The discovery theory is also called individual/opportunity nexus theory because it focuses on the existence, discovery and exploitation of opportunities identified by distinctive entrepreneurs. The discovery view of opportunities (Shane and Venkataraman, 2000) believes that the existence of opportunities is objective in that these opportunities exist whether or not recognized by people. They are products of market imperfection which leads market participants to make suboptimal choices. These opportunities include situations where new markets can be created through new means-ends relationships (Eckhardt and Shane, 2003). Understanding these opportunities is the essential part of entrepreneur process because it directly determines how much value could be created from them. But the only existence of opportunities is not enough, a distinct person who can accurately identify and exploit these opportunities, who is the entrepreneur, is also essential for these opportunities to make sense. The discovery theory holds the view that this is a subjective process, which requires a special alertness in entrepreneurs so that they can be responsive to external circumstances and solve external deficiencies (Casson, 1982). This alertness is an attitude. Entrepreneurs are not deliberately looking for opportunities out of inspiration. On the contrary, they are constantly and spontaneously scanning the market environment to see if such market imperfections exist. They are keen enough to identify these opportunities and are quickly enough to assess the profitability of them. If they get a satisfied result, they will respond to these opportunities immediately by acquiring and organizing resources. For these entrepreneurs, the information contained in the opportunity is a direct guidance to how the subsequent project can be fulfilled optimally. One important thing that needs to be realized is that entrepreneur’s action is always risk bearing (Shane, 2003). Entrepreneurs are superior in the sense that they find ignored market imperfections. But this superiority does not guarantee their success. They still need to face the constantly changing market environment and various risk exposures.

最重要的数据?#35797;?#26159;由沃尔特·艾萨克森(WalterIsaacson)撰写的史蒂夫·乔布斯的授权传记,可在图书馆查阅。这本书提供了一个独特的洞察苹果CEO和联合创始人的职业生涯。按照时间表,这本书描述了苹果主要产品的诞生,包括Macintosh电脑、iPod、iPhone和iPad。这些产品的设计过程很好地?#24471;髁斯?#20316;的特点。这本书还描述了乔布斯与员工的互动方式,以及他如何以经理的身份运营公司,而不仅仅是产品设计师(Isaacson,2011年)。这是一个了解工作的全新视角。虽然传记的有限性存在于其主要信息来?#20174;?#20052;布斯的自我叙述,但这种有限性减少的原因有两个。首先,乔布斯要求?#36816;?#20889;内容没有控制权,其次,作者从其他来源收集了大量信息。
The most important data resource is the authorized biography of Steve Jobs written by Walter Isaacson available at the library. This book provides a unique insight into the professional life of the Apple CEO and co-founder. Following the timeline, the book describes the birth of those main products of Apple, including Macintosh computer, iPod, iPhone and iPad. The design process of those products are very good illustration of the character of Jobs. The book also describes the way Jobs interacts with his employees and how he operates the company as a manager, rather than just a designer of product (Isaacson, 2011). This is a fairly new perspective to understand Jobs. Although the limitedness of biography exists for this book that its main information source comes from the self-narration of Jobs, there are two reasons why this limitedness is reduced. First is that Jobs asked for no control on what was written, and second is that the author collects a lot of information from other sources.

Still, more Internet and media sources are used to reduce possible bias. These materials come in two main categories. One category is news about Jobs himself, including videos and interviews of Jobs on journals and newspapers. In one interview by Business Week (2004), Jobs described how technical knowhow could be combined with a new concept of how to sell music online. Another category includes research of the products of Apple. These products are inherently reflections of the business innovations of Jobs. As a result, it provides a good channel to understand the entrepreneur process of the Apple CEO. For example, Edwards in his article (2010) argues that iPhone and its new model are sweet to consumers and at the same time vicious to its rivals. With its new features, iPhone is gaining more market power than ever. McCray, Gonzalez and Darling (2011) further contrast Apple with Nokia in facing crisis of smart phones. They emphasize on how Apple's innovative combination of its iTunes, iPhone, and applications help the company to beat Nokia in a new era.

Another stunning opportunity found by Jobs is the introduction of iPhone. In 2005, the whole number of mobile phones globally has exceeded 825 million. In spite of the fact that people as younger as a primary school student and as older as a 70 year old lady are all using cell phones, these mobile devices are ugly and simple. Like the case in the computer market, Jobs was determined to build fancy and high-quality smart phones that serve more functions than simple texting or dialing a number. The appearance of iPhone is more than enough to satisfy this kind of demand of consumers. The multi-touch technology and the enlarged screen completely change the user experience of using smart phones. Moreover, the huge amounts of useful applications and interesting games available from on-line app stores greatly increased the attractiveness of this mobile phone. It is such a different device that it far exceeds the expectations normal people has for a cellphone. People are crazily buying iPhone to show a lifestyle.



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